I wonder how you would do physics in a spacetime finite volumes
of which contain more than continuum many points? The physical theories of spacetime I'm familiar with are all based in ordinary differential geometry, which is about finite-dimensional manifolds, which by definition are locally isomorphic to R^n. I don't know how you'd begin to define, e.g., the notion of the gradient of a scalar field, if you were trying to work in something bigger.
I'm probably not comfortable enough with the maths to come up with elegant treatments of mathematics with higher cardinalities than the continuum, but here's one way of doing it, though it is a bit kludgy. Let us start with a space that has 2^continuum many points. Instead of defining the fields, measures etc. over points, define them over equivalence classes of points, where the equivalence classes contain 2^continuum-many points each. For example, the distance measure needed to get the right predictions in the physics we do doesn't treat as different all the points "around" a given point. (I’ll talk in this entry about “space” though the remarks will carry over straightforwardly to spacetime.)
You might wonder what right these so-called points have to be called "points" if e.g. a distance metric does not distinguish them. Why aren’t the equivalence classes better candidates to be identified as the "points"? But there are a few answers available: maybe there's also a more discerning and more natural function F from points to somethings that does distinguish the points inside our equivalence classes, and our distance measure is a crude abstraction from F that is good enough for practical purposes. Or maybe the natural relation in the area is not a function on equivalence classes, but a relation between points that is uniform across these equivalence classes: that is, when we have two equivalence classes C and D, then if any member of C stands in R to any member of D, then every member of C stands in R to every member of D. Or it should be easy enough to come up with other marks of distinction that the members of the equivalence classes have that make them better candidates to count as points than the classes - maybe the members are the ultimate parts of spacetime, for example, or maybe we have general reasons for thinking classes can’t be points.
So the members of the equivalence classes might be the genuine points, and arbitrary fusions of them might have a good claim to be regions, thus giving us more than Beth2 regions. But the physical theories need not operate very differently - it just turns out that where we treated our mathematical physics as defining fields, measures, etc. over points, it should instead be treated as defining those quantities over equivalence classes of points. Of course, we are left with the question of what the fundamental physical relationships are that we are modelling with our functions, but I hope I’ve said enough to indicate that there are a number of options here.
If the model I have just given works, then it will be trivial to carry out a similar procedure to generate models of larger spaces: simply ensure that the equivalence classes contain N points, where N can be any cardinal you like. It does not work as smoothly once each equivalence class has more than set-many points, though that raises quite different sorts of problems.
These models mimic standard physics, and for some purposes we might want to see what sorts of models of higher-cardinality spaces we could come up with that exploit the extra structure of those spaces to produce more complicated “physical” structures. But the sort of model I described should be enough to raise an epistemic question I alluded to in my previous post. If physics as we do it would work just as well in these richer spaces, why be so sure that we are not in one of these spaces? I think some appeal to simplicity or parsimony is good enough to favour believing we are not in such a higher-cardinality space. But I seem to be more of a fan of parsimony than a lot of people. This case might be another one to support the view that many physicists implicitly employ parsimony considerations in theory choice, perhaps even considerations of quantitative parsimony!